Bida is the second largest city in Niger State with an estimated population of 178,840 according 2006 population census. It is located southwest of Minna, capital of Niger State, and is a dry, arid town.
The major ethnic group is the Nupe. Bida is the headquarters of the Nupe Kingdom led by the Etsu Yahaya Abubakar and consisting of many districts, such as Katcha, Lapai, Mokwa, Enagi, Baddeggi, Agaie, Pategi, Lemu, Kutigi, and others.
The Emir of Bida is addressed as Etsu Nupe.
The town is known for its production of traditional crafts, notably glass and brassware. Bida is also known for its Durbar festival.
It is also the home of the Federal Polytechnic Bida.
There are other places in Bida such as Bamisu estate, Ramatu dangana, ECWA poly road, Small Market, Main Market and others. There are also different schools like The Federal Government Girls College, Federal Polytechnic Staff Secondary School among others.
Bida is not only occupied by northerners, it is also a place with vast tribes like Igbo, yoruba, Hausa, igala, Urhobo, Calabar and other tribes inclusive.
Bida is the traditional headquarters of the Nupes, a people said to be descendents of Vgha Bn Nafili, who is believed to have migrated from North East-Africa to the Nubia and from there to Nupe land.
The first effective Nupe dynasty was founded by Mallam Dendo, a learned Fulani Court Adviser, who rose to prominence and power after deposing the then Etsu Nupe, Majiya (1767 77) at Raba After Mallam Dendo’s death in 1832, his Senior Son, Usman Zaki became the first Etsu Nupe in Bida until 1859.
Thus, Bida became both the political and commercial centre of the Nupes. Etsu Masaba and Umaru Majigi succeeded him one after the other between 1859 – 1873 and 1873 1884 respectively. Etsu Maliki reigned for eleven years between 1884 and 1895.
During the reign of Etsu Abubakar between 1895 and 1901, the British invasion through the Royal Niger Company became imminent and inevitable. Late Etsu Abubakar was exiled and Muhammadu Makun, Son of Umar Majigi was appointed Etsu Nupe.
Succession in the three ruling houses continued after his death in 1916, until 1935 when Muhammadu Ndayako whose reign has been described as the most successful in Nupe land was appointed.
When Usman Sarki, who came after Muhammadu Ndayako in 1962 abdicated, a semi administrative interregnum followed before the appointment of Muse Bello who died in January, 1975. Musa Bello was succeeded by Alhaji Umaru Sanda.
After the death of Etsu Sanda on 1st September, 2003, Alhaji (Dr.) Umar Sanda Ndayako was succeeded by Alhaji Yahaya Abubakar as the 13th Etsu Nupe on 11th September, 2003.
Bida is the headquarters of Bida emirate and Local Government council. It is a city with ten entrance gates. The gates are: Ban Gaye, Ban Wuya, Ban Tuwa, Ban Gbogi, Ban Zhiwuru, Ban Gbara, Ban Yagi, Ban Malism Dendo, a learned Fulani Court Adviser, who Etsu Yisa, Ban Ma and Ban Wunangi.